LISTENING: See this video to learn the functions of each of the main parts of an airplane.
Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with data about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, heading and much more other crucial information in flight.
They improve safety by allowing the pilot to fly the aircraft in level flight, and make turns, without a reference outside the aircraft such as the horizon.
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) require an airspeed indicator, an altimeter, and a compass or other suitable magnetic direction indicator. Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) additionally require a gyroscopic pitch-bank (artificial horizon), direction (directional gyro) and rate of turn indicator, plus a slip-skid indicator, adjustable altimeter, and a clock. Flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) require radio navigation instruments for precise takeoffs and landings.
Instrument landing system
In aviation, the Instrument Landing System (ILS) is a radio navigation system that provides short-range guidance to aircraft to allow them to approach a runway at night or in bad weather. In its original form, it allows an aircraft to approach until it is 200 feet (61 m) over the ground, within a 1⁄2 mile of the runway. At that point the runway should be visible to the pilot; if it is not, they perform a missed approach.
Bringing the aircraft this close to the runway dramatically improves the weather conditions in which a safe landing can be made. Later versions of the system, or \”categories\”, have further reduced the minimum altitudes.
ILS uses two directional radio signals, the localizer (108 to 112 MHz frequency), which provides horizontal guidance, and the glideslope (329.15 to 335 MHz frequency) for vertical. The relationship between the aircraft\’s position and these signals is displayed on an aircraft instrument, often additional pointers in the attitude indicator.
The pilot attempts to maneuver the aircraft to keep these indicators centered while they approach the runway to the decision height. Optional markers provide distance information as the approach proceeds, including the middle marker placed close to the position of the decision height. ILS may also include high-intensity lighting at the end of the runways.
All parts of an airplane are crucial for conducting safe flight. A huge responsibility pilots take on is making sure all aircraft components are in excellent condition before embarking on their flight journey.
Interactive exercise “Parts of the plane” :
Commercial airliners are used to haul passengers and freight on a scheduled basis between selected airports. They range in size from single-engine freight carriers to the Airbus A380 and in speed from below 200 miles per hour to supersonic, in the case of the Anglo-French Concorde, which was in service from 1976 to 2003.
An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel. Most modern commercial aircraft are pressurized, as cruising altitudes are high enough such that the surrounding atmosphere is too thin for passengers and crew to breathe.
In commercial air travel, particularly in airliners, cabins may be divided into several parts. These can include travel class sections in medium and large aircraft, areas for flight attendants, the galley, and storage for in-flight service. Seats are mostly arranged in rows and alleys. The higher the travel class, the more space is provided. Cabins of the different travel classes are often divided by curtains, sometimes called class dividers. Passengers are not usually allowed to visit higher travel class cabins in commercial flights.
Different types of flight classes
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an airplane intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service.
The largest of them are wide-body jets which are also called twin-aisle because they generally have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These are usually used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. (stopover points)
A smaller, more common class of airliners is the narrow-body or single-aisle. These are generally used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts.
Listen and read the following announcements:
Galleys on commercial airlines typically include not only facilities to serve and store food and beverages, but also contain flight attendant jumpseats, emergency equipment storage, as well as anything else flight attendants may need during the flight.
Flight Attendant Stations
They are located at the forward and aft passenger entry doors, and include an attendant panel, attendant work lights, handset and seats.
Designated emergency equipment and service unit containing oxygen masks are located at each flight attendant station.
Passenger address system is used for making flight deck, attendant and prerecorded announcements to the passenger cabin. Entertainment audio and boarding music can also be sent through the PA system.
ENTRY DOOR AND AIRSTAIRS
The forward airstairs provide the capability of boarding passengers without relying on airport ground equipment.
They are stowed in a compartment just below the forward entry door. For passenger safety upper handrails are attached to support brackets as airstairs are extended.